Description of the first of a series of user studies for our app, this one conducted at De Lange Keizer daycare center, Delft. Eight children participated in the two testing sessions.
This user study was the first field test of our implemented app prototype. The app is a location sharing device for families with children in primary school (between 6-12 years of age), which allows users to create locations, check-in in these locations, share and receive check-ins from others as they choose, and create normative-based social commitments with other users regarding sharing/receiving check-ins. We believe that this additional capability (social commitments) will provide a better support for user values for children, namely social recognition, friendship, independence, and freedom (amongst other hypotheses).
We have built two editions of the app. Edition 1 comes without social commitments (a.k.a. afspraken) and edition 2 comes with social commitments. These hypotheses/research questions we are attempting to answer in this user study are:
- Within the domain of family life, e2 will provide better overall value support for children than e1.
- Within the domain of family life, e2 will be perceived more as social actor than e1.
- Within the domain of family life, e2 will be perceived more as useful/usable than e1.
- (Research question) what subset of the possible social commitments will our users use, and for what purposes/values?
- Children will expect that the presence of an app in their life will increase support to their values.
- Sub hypothesis: the children will expect that the presence of an app in their life will increase their independence (or personal freedom).
- Sub hypothesis: the children will expect that the presence of an app in their life will increase have a positive effect on their friendships (or their social recognition).
- Children will expect that the presence of an app in their life will increase support to their activities.
- Children will expect that the presence of an app in their life will remove some of the limitations they have.
The user study took place at a local day care center (Dutch: buitenschoolse opvang) in Delft. This day care center is a place where children are brought after school is over, until their parents pick them up at the end of their workday. It contains 9 different activity rooms where children can freely participate in activities, such as a painting room, music room, playground, lunchroom, etc. The day care center officials have assisted us finding children who wanted to participate in the user study.
Due to the number of participants (8 children, aged between 7 and 10 years) we opted for a within subject, counterbalancing design, meaning that children were randomly split in two groups of four, each group testing a different edition of the app in each of the two sessions.
We held an introductory session one week before the user study sessions, where the researchers met the participants, introduced the app using a tutorial video, and answered their questions about the app and the procedure of the user study.
User study sessions
The two sessions were identical, and they were one week apart. Below is a description of what happens in each session.
Children had to perform “missions” using the app. A mission is either:
- Instructional, directly pointing to a functionality in the app to help the user get acquainted with the app more. Examples: checking-in in a certain location, adding other users to their friend or family list, and creating a social commitment.
- A story-lined, simulation of a real life situation, that requires the user to figure out what needs to be done with the app without direct instructions. Examples: go to the lunchroom. Did you find any of your friends there? How can you ensure that one of your friends will inform you when they enter this location? Check who’s in the painting room. Anyone from your team? If yes, try to tell all your friends that you are both at that location. Can you see where others on your team are? Try to go out and find one of them. Hint: check your event list.
There were 37 mission cards in total (17 instructional missions, 20 real-life situation simulations, see example in photo below). The missions had an even distribution of “envisioned” solutions in terms of app functionalities and the possible types of commitments that need to be created.
Children would pick random missions from the pile, read the text, (attempt to) perform them, and then bring the mission back when they would like (whether finished successful or not) to the pile to pick another one, and so on. The user study stopped when one hour had passed in each session.
During which the first 10 minutes only instructional missions were available to be picked from the pile (in order to build some app knowledge). Afterwards, we added the rest of the missions to the pile.
- Value measuring questionnaire: answered by children at the end of sessions 2 and 3. Contains questions to measure fulfillment of the values Friendship, Social recognition, Independence, Freedom. (Hypotheses 1,5,6,7). Questions in this questionnaire were framed into a hypothetical future tense: e.g. “if I had this app in my life, it would <less easy………..nothing will change……..much easier> to find where my friends are. Before they answered the questionnaire, children watched a short video explaining how the questionnaire should be answered, with a period for questions and answers.
- Questionnaire for usability and social actorship, also answered by children at the end of sessions 2 and 3. Contained questions for usability, liking, dominance, trust, and intimacy. (Hypotheses 2,3).
- Every time a child picked a mission from the pile, the id numbers of the child, mission, and timestamp were recorded. (Research question 4)
- Behavioral sampling: every 10 minutes, one of the researchers recorded every child’s emotion/body language according to a predetermined coding schema (derived from Markopolous, Evaluating Children’s interactive Products, pp. 182, with positive codes created by reversing the negative ones already existing in the text), their location, and their engagement with others, i.e. whether in groups or alone. (Hypotheses 1,5,6,7).
- All app interactions with any user were recorded and time-stamped on the server, e.g. every check-in, every time a user added another user to a list, every time a commitment was created, accepted, rejected, etc. (Research question 4).